Lubczak J., Podstawy chemii organicznej, Skrypt Politechniki Rzeszowskiej, ; Achremowicz L., Soroka M., Laboratorium chemii organicznej, Skrypt. Project the contents: Basic literature: A. I. Vogel: Preparatyka organiczna, WNT, ; L. Achremowicz, M. Soroka: Laboratorium Chemii Organicznej. Analiza Substancji Organicznych”, which was written in Polish, and printed in  Achremowicz L., Soroka M., Laboratorium chemii organicznej.
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Na lecie atomistyki chemicznej Johna Daltona.
Sny Wolfganga Pauliego Ignacy Z. Siemion Donors of Nitrogen Oxide. Lucyna Korzycka Tools for Combinatorial Chemistry. The use of enzymatic catalysis, in an organic medium, for synthesis of polysaccharides, polyesters, polyaromatics and polypeptides has experienced important developments over past few years. The review deals with recent orgxnicznej in synthesis of biodegradable polymers, and aliphatic polyesters in particular, via in vitro enzymatic catalysis.
Organic chemistry – Courses – USOSweb – Politechnika Rzeszowska
Recently, biodegradable aliphatic polyesters have attracted great interest in medicine as well as environmentally acceptable materials for packaging industry and agriculture. The enzyme-catalysed condensation reactions, ring-opening polymerisation, and corresponding transesterification of macromolecular substrates, as tools for their preparation, are discussed. Enzymes in polymer synthesis offer several advantages as substrate selectivity, enantio- regio- and chemoselectivity.
They enable, under mild reaction conditions and in the presence of or without organic solvents in bulkcreation of useful polymeric materials with elimination of the potentially toxic catalysts. Some of functional polymers, difficult to obtain by conventional methodologies, may be synthesised using enzymes as catalysts.
Although enzymatic procedures sometimes are not suitable for a large-scale preparation they can be successfully applied for new synthetic strategies for modelled polymers with desired topology and structure, including structure of the polymer end groups. The survey applies to oxidation reaction of substituent phenols in the presence of catalysts.
The transition metal complexes with various types of attached to polymer support ligands were used as these catalysts. Especially, we have paid attention to the hydroquinone oxidation to p -benzoquinone using hydrogen peroxide and atmospheric oxygen in the presence of Cu II complexes with ligands containing nitrogen for example: Oxidation reactions of substituent phenols proceeds in accordance with Michealis-Menten kinetic in all of described systems.
It can preclude neither an influence of support kind applied to the catalyst preparation nor an influence of ligand kind chelating metal ions on oxidation kinetic. The comparison of the oxidation kinetic in several systems showed the domination of polymer-metal complexes over the native metal ions and also over the catalysts being the metal complexes with the low molecular compounds containing the same ligands as these, which were attached to polymer support.
Noakowskiego 3, Warszawa. The condensation reaction of p-tert -butylphenol with formaldehyde leads in one step, with relatively high yield, to macrocyclic phenol-formaldehyde tetramer – calixarene.
This calixarene easily undergoes modification in the reaction with various substrates and a macrocyclic product functionalized at both ‘narrow’ and ‘wide’ rims can be prepared.
According to this way, various calixarene derivatives exhibiting properties of selective complexation of various species can be obtained. The majority of applications of calixarenes and their derivatives are focused on selective complexation of cations and anions. The review demonstrates the possibility of syntheses of calixarenes with chromoionophoric properties.
Usually, urea groups are used as anion binding receptors and chromogenic groups are introduced into the calixarene structure in close proximity to the ion-binding site. Methods of synthesis of chromoionophoric calixarenes able to complex selected anions were elaborated.
In these calixarenes urea groups were connected to the calixarene ring in the reaction of an amine derivative with chromophoric isocyanate or active urethane. Several derivatives with naphthylurea and other chromophoric groups were prepared.
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The chemical structures of chromoionophoric calixarenes were confirmed by elemental analysis, as well as IR and proton NMR spectroscopies. It was found that calixarene ionophore with chromogenic urea groups show changes in the 1 H NMR and laboratoriu, spectra in the presence of nitrate, dihydrophosphate and hydrophosphate anions.
Chromogenic ditopic calixarene containing ester groups at the narrow and naphthylurea organiczenj at the wide rim of calixarene was also described.
The complexation of sodium ions by ester groups and dihydrophosphate anions by urea groups was confirmed via changes in the NMR spectra. The method of obtaining and preliminary properties of the calixarene macromonomer, which possesses the ability of selective dihydrophosphate anions complexation, are also presented.
The complexing properties of the macromonomer were very similar to that of the symmetric calixarene with four naphthyl urea groups at the wide rim.
The resulting calixarene macromonomer containing chromophoric receptor groups urea and polymerizable group allyl is going to be covalently bonded with the polymer matrix by copolymerization with acrylic comonomers. Poly phenylene sulfides are oligomeric materials with excellent plastic performance of commercial interest.
They form durable insulating coatings and are cementing agents. The products of medium molecular weight, containing oligomers up to octamers, are formed by the reaction of sulfur or sodium sulfide with para- substituted chlorobenzenes [2, 29].
The reaction is not a simple stepwise polycondensation. HS formed in a one-electron transfer process initiates the chain formation and the reaction goes with reactive intermediate radicals and radical cations.
This reaction can be called the reactive intermediate polycondensation. The reaction temperature must be higher than o C to cleave the disulfide linkage homolytically allowing surviving the chain forming carriers. In this paper I report the reaction of chloronitrobenzene derivatives with sodium sulfide and disulfide in polar solvents.
The reaction carried out in this solvent gives the highest reaction rate and kaboratorium to products with relatively high molecular weight.
An activation of N -methylpyrrolidone molecule to a radical laboratorlum by a transfer of electron from HS- scheme chemji . In the reaction of 1-chloronitrobenzene with sodium sulphide or disulphide in N -methylpyrrolidone at high temperatures oligomeric products were obtained . The mechanism of the reactive intermediates polycondensation reaction are described.
The reaction of 1-chloronitrobenzene with sodium sulphide and disulphide in N-methylpyrrolidone proceeds as follows: In the second stage there is a progressive reduction of nitro groups in agreement laboartorium the date of S.
Hydrocarbon oils and petroleum derived fluids are commonly used in technology. However, in many applications the requirements of the lxboratorium exceed the performance capabilities of classical fluids cgemii the synthesis of new products to meet the extraordinary demands is necessary. Chemically and physiologically inert siloxanes, thermally stable poly a -olefins PAO and esters showing excellent resistance to nuclear radiation are some examples of synthetic oil.
The fluids of ester structure, which are similar to natural triglicerydes, are very important class of synthetic oils. Ester oils possess superior physicochemical and performance properties as well as are non-toxic and easy biodegradable in comparison to many traditional derived fluids . This paper is focused on specific application areas for which ester fluids are either currently used or being seriously considered for use. A special attention is given to ester oil synthesis including the methods based on indirect esterification, transesterification and enzymatic catalysis [11,12,49].
It is emphasised excellent thermo-oxidative properties of neopentyl alcohol esters .
Dicarboxylic acids esters, which are commonly used as synthetic fluids together with organicznj compounds of oligomer, character are also ogranicznej . A new laboratlrium of ester oils such as dialkyl carbonates and their synthesis using dimethyl carbonate as starting material are included .
Further sections of the paper are focused on phosphate esters and oils produced from native triglicerydes [76,95]. The effect of fatty acids structure on the properties of obtained products is reported. The methods of chemical modification of fatty acids structure such as selective hydrogenation, oligomerisation, alkylation, methatesis and acylooxylation are discussed. The last part of the paper deals with hydrolytic decomposition of esters in which steric hindrance and resonance effect play an important role .
Immobilized metal affinity chromatography IMAC is a widely used technique for separation acremowicz proteins with natural surface-exposed histidine residues and recombinant proteins with polyhistidine fusion tags in particular .
IMAC is a type of an affinity chromatography which gives an opportunity to separate proteins based on the binding of proteins to transition metals. Laboratoriim occurs via the electron-donating side chain of residues such as histidine and cysteine, which substitute water molecules coordinated to the metal. Due to the labogatorium that metal affinity is sensitive to achremowivz exposure and spatial arrangement of histidine residues, IMAC can probe structural changes expressed on protein surfaces as a result of partial digestion, unfolding, or association with other molecules .
Overall, IMAC is a quick method which limits the number of procedures in the process of laboratroium proteins thereby reducing the cost of their isolation. This paper describes influence of the type and the number of electro-donor surface groups, the type of metal immobilized with the stationary phase and pH of the mobile phase on the selectivity of an affinity separation.
Ion exclusion chromatography IEC is applied mostly to separate ionic compounds from the non-ionic ones. Wheaton and Bauman were first to describe this technique achremowifz . In the recent years the number of IEC determinations displays a strong tendency to increase. The characteristic feature of IEC technique is the electric charge sign of dissociated ion-exchange resin functional groups that is the same as the electric charge sign of the analyzed ionic compound.
It follows that samples of negatively charged ions e. Usually these are sulphonic acid groups. Similarly, samples containing positively charged species bases are separated on the anion exchange resin containing cationic functional groups.
Usually these are tetraalkylammonium groups [2, 6]. In a laborarorium these rules are in contrast to those of ion exchange chromatography, where anions are separated on anion exchange resins and cations are separated on cation exchange resins.
However, the same columns can be used in both techniques. For the specific requirements of ion exclusion chromatography large ion exchange capacity is preferential [2, 9]. Along with these, to increase the capacity the column dimensions and the functional group concentration in the support are maximized.
The usual supports are based on the macro-porous styrene and divinylbenzene copolymer. IEC finds application in the separation of a wide range of small, neutral or partially ionized molecules. In IEC the strong as well as weak orgqnicznej are eluted unseparated, the first at the beginning and the latter at the end of the elution. The retention volumes of the remaining electrolytes were found to be proportional to chenii dissociation constant values. The dead and orgaicznej volumes of the chromatographic column can be determined from the observed dependence of retention volumes onto laboratoriim constant values.
The retention mechanism is described by the analytical equations and on the results obtained from the computer simulation of the column performance using global thermodynamic and chromatographic equations or the Craig method. The mixed retention mechanism involving hydrophobic adsorption, p -electron interactions and screening effect is observed for weak electrolytes and aromatic compounds [8, 13, 14].
Aromatic compounds are retained almost solely involving interaction of the solute with the unfunctionalized regions of the stationary phase. The purpose of this paper is to survey the field. The retention mechanism of analyzed compounds in ion-exclusion chromatography has been described.
The influence of some physicochemical parameters describing the sample, organicznfj chromatographic column and the mobile phase on the retention is discussed. Finally, practical applications are briefly presented. This paper reviews the most important problems of interparticle interactions, which determine effectiveness of many technologies such as: This paper presents an evolution chmii theoretical models of adhesion phenomena.
Hertz at the end of XIX century investigated creation of the contact between two particles. He based his conclusion on mechanical side of phenomena only.
This observation gave beginning for Griffith’s testing, which elaborated theory of brittle fracture In this theory he coupled surface energy g and elasticity.