Liberal Leviathan: The Origins, Crisis, and Transformation of the American World Order, by G. John Ikenberry. Princeton University Press, Liberal Leviathan: The Origins, Crisis, and Transformation of the American World Order. G. JOHN IKENBERRY. Series: Princeton Studies in International History. Liberal Leviathan: The Origins, Crisis, and Transformation of the American World .. wife, Lidia Reiko Usami, and our son, Jackson Kan Ikenberry, to whom.

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Princeton University Press, John Ikenberry, Professor of Politics and International Affairs at Princeton University, analyzes the origins of American World Order – a liberal hegemonic order he calls the “most successful order in world history. Ikenberry calls the Post-World War II order a “distinctive blend of command and reciprocity, coercion and consent” in which the United States acts as a leviatthan hegemon”.

Unlike earlier systems, this order has both realist and idealist elements, and it creates a framework in which “power and rules are not enemies, they lwviathan be friends, and they are both necessary in the production of liberal order. This unique and complex structure makes crude assertions that we live under a US-American empire unconvincing, and it explains why emerging powers have such a difficult time finding consensus about how to reform global order. The author is acutely aware that the current world order is in crisis – paradoxically because the United States’ unipolar moment ikenberr with the “inside” Western system facing the Soviets turned into the “outside” order encompassing the globe – removed the U.

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Yet Oeviathan remains optimistic. Thinking of the way forward, he argues that “power is most legitimate and durable when exercised within a system of rules,” noting that the best way to assert U. American power is to reaffirm the ‘liberal hegemonic order’. Despite apparent flaws, the likelihood of the end of liberal order is small.

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Rather, the current state of affairs merely shows that the system has outgrown its American-led, hegemonic foundation, and the problems we see today are a symptom of the system’s wild success, not its failure. Even in a system with few restraints to American unipolarity, leviathab state engages in open balancing behavior against the United States.

Those who are familiar with Ikenberry’s previous work will recognize several arguments he has made in After Victoryand in The Crisis of American Foreign Policy: Wilsonianism in the 21st Century: Today’s system is highly integrative “easy to join and hard to overturn”as everyone – including not yet fully integrated powers – benefits from its existence.

Imenberry to that an extremely low probability of great power war the ultimate sign that an international order has failedand the continued existence of today’s global order is assured. Still, Ikenberry argues that the ‘liberal Leviathan’ will have to regain its lost authority and share responsibility.

While the Bush administration weakened the liberal characteristics of the system and strengthened the imperial levithan, the U. If it plays its cards right, the U.

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This raises the question in how far an authoritarian regime like China can play a leading role in today’s order — and to what extent the United States would accept anyone but itself at the center of global order. This question is particularly important as today’s liberal international order can no longer be narrowly drawn as a security order, but includes many complex rights and obligations, such as the ‘Responsibility to Protect’.

For example, while Western Europe enjoyed multilateral agreements, the Middle East and Latin America were exposed to the imperial characteristics of the system, thus creating regional imbalances that deeply affect how elites in different countries think about global order today.

Book review: “Liberal Leviathan” by G. John Ikenberry

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