Leon Festinger and James Carlsmith proposed the term cognitive dissonance which is Every individual has his or her Festinger, L. and Carlsmith, J. M. ( ). The following article by Leon Festinger and James M. Carlsmith is the classic study on Reprinted from Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, , 58, . Forced compliance theory is a paradigm that is closely related to cognitive dissonance theory. Leon Festinger and James M. Carlsmith () conducted an experiment entitled “Cognitive Consequences of Forced Compliance”. This study.

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The text in this article is licensed under the Creative Commons-License Attribution 4. The control subjects were asked to go to a room to be interviewed.

A laboratory experiment was designed to test these derivations. They could only overcome that dissonance by coming to believe that the tasks really were interesting and enjoyable. Hence, the alternative explanation discussed above cannot account for the findings. Most S s responded by saying something like “Oh, no, it’s really very interesting. The reliabilities of these ratings, that is, the correlations between the two independent raters, ranged from.

Also, the majority of experiments used students as participants, which raise issues of a biased sample. Hence, one would expect the results on this question to be very similar to the results on “how enjoyable the tasks were” but weaker. The E then paid the S one dollar twenty dollarsmade out a hand-written receipt form, and asked the S to sign it.

Green York University, Toronto, Ontario. These recordings were transcribed and then rated, by two independent raters, on five dimensions. He explained that, since they were required to serve in experiments, the department was conducting a study to evaluate these experiments in order to be able to improve them in the future.

When one of the dissonant elements is a behavior, the individual carlssmith change or eliminate the behavior.

Cognitive Dissonance

This study involved 71 male students from Stanford University. By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. The students were asked to perform a tedious task involving using one hand to turn small spools a quarter clockwise turn. Thus, with self-selection of who did and who did not make the required overt statement and with varying percentages of subjects in the different conditions who did make the requsted statement, no interpretation of the data can be unequivocal.

All carsmith S s in both One Dollar and Twenty Dollar conditions were caelsmith, after this explanation, to return the money they had [p. They were told that the study aims to evaluate these experiments to help them improve these in the future.


The observed opinion change is greater than for persons who only hear the speech or for persons who read a prepared speech with emphasis solely on execution and manner of delivery The authors of these two studies explain their results mainly in terms of mental rehearsal and thinking up new arguments.

In the control condition, of course, the girl was not there. Almost all of the participants agreed to walk into the waiting room and persuade the confederate that the boring experiment would be fun. Seventy-one male students in the introductory psychology course at Stanford University were used in the experiment.

Participants were also told that they would receive one of the products at the end of the experiment to compensate for their time and effort.

When they were asked to lie about how they truly feel about the task, they force themselves to feel what they were induced to feel and express. While fringe members were more inclined to recognize that they had made fools of themselves and to “put it down to experience,” committed members were more likely to re-interpret the evidence to show that they were right all along the earth was not destroyed because of the faithfulness of the cult members.

This produces a feeling of mental discomfort leading to an alteration in one of the attitudes, beliefs or behaviors to reduce the discomfort and restore balance. The study built on previous research that carllsmith when individuals are not granted the freedom to agree or disagree with the task, signs of dissonance are not detected.

The experimented stressed that acceptance would oblige and might lead fsstinger future involvements in experiments if the associate was again unavailable. It was at this point that the treatment of the three groups of subjects i. This is further explained in Leon Festinger and James Carlsmith’s study in There are also individual differences in whether or not people act as this theory predicts. One way in which the dissonance can be reduced is cwrlsmith the person to change his private opinion so as to bring it into correspondence with what he has said.

Change one or more of the attitudes, behavior, beliefs, etc. The data from 11 of the 71 S s in the experiment had to be discarded for the following reasons:. Forced compliance theory is a paradigm that is closely related to cognitive dissonance theory. All 71 of the students received this same treatment of a short wait in the secretary’s office, of performing the two tasks, and then of the ‘explanation’ being offered about their own role being that of being part of a control group in contradistinction to others who had experienced a positive introduction to the tasks by the experimenter’s associate.

He did so in order to make it convincing that this was [p.


Forced compliance theory – Wikipedia

The larger the pressure used to elicit the [p. Basically, they were asked to lie and say the task was interesting or fun when they really believed it was boring. About a third of subjects were released from the experiment at this point after being thanked by the experimenter, who also expressed the hope that the carlwmith had enjoyed the experienceand being interviewed by someone from the psychology department ostensibly with the view of improving the presentation of experiments in the future.

Retrieved Dec 21, from Explorable. For example, suppose you had to decide whether to accept a job in an absolutely beautiful area fsstinger the ahd, or turn down the job so you could be near your friends and family. Group B was given introduction by an experimenter, presenting the tasks in an interesting and enjoyable tone.

These were Festinger and Carlsmith’s actual ‘control’ group. The reason for doing it, theoretically, was to make it easier for anyone who wanted to persuade himself that the tasks had been, indeed, enjoyable. It is a theory with very broad applications, showing that we aim for consistency between attitudes and behaviors, and may not use very rational methods to achieve it.

Festinger & Carlsmith Cognitive dissonance consequences of forced compliance

If the results of our experiment are to be taken caflsmith strong corroboration of the theory of cognitive dissonance, this possible alternative explanation must be dealt with. The theory of cognitive dissonance has been widely researched in a number carpsmith situations to develop the basic idea in more detail, and various factors that have been identified which may be important in attitude change.

The second area is whether the experiment gave the participant an opportunity to discover their own skills, using the scale of 0 to We mentioned in the introduction that Janis and King ; in explaining their findings, proposed an explanation in terms of the self-convincing effect of mental rehearsal [p.

This was rated in the same way as for the content before the remark. Whilst each student was performing these tasks an experimenter was present in the room with a stop watch and a pad upon which notes were made. It was explained that, since students were required to serve in experiments, the Department of Psychology was conducting a study to evaluate these experiments in order to be able to improve them in the future.