On establishing universal peace in truth, justice, charity and liberty. To our venerable brothers the patriarchs, primates, archbishops, bishops and other local . Pacem in Terris, an encyclical written by Pope John XXIII. This is only a summary review. THE LIFE. Papa Giovanni XXIII Enciclica Pacem in Terris. BIRTH AND FIRST YEARS OF LIFE IN THE FAMILY · EDUCATION TO THE PRIESTHOOD.
|Published (Last):||16 April 2018|
|PDF File Size:||14.11 Mb|
|ePub File Size:||10.35 Mb|
|Price:||Free* [*Free Regsitration Required]|
Peace on Earth—which man throughout the ages has so longed for and sought after—can never be established, never guaranteed, except by the diligent observance of the divinely established order. That a marvelous order predominates in the world of living beings and in the forces of nature, is the plain lesson which the progress of modern research and the discoveries encicllica technology teach us.
And it is part of the greatness of man padem he can appreciate that order, and etrris the means for harnessing those forces for his own benefit. But what emerges first and foremost from the progress of scientific knowledge and the inventions of technology is the infinite greatness of God Himself, who created both man and the universe. Yes; out of nothing He made all things, and filled them with the fullness of His own wisdom and goodness. Hence, these are the words the holy psalmist used in praise of God: Thou hast made all things in wisdom.
Moreover, 2a God created man “in His own image and likeness,” 3 endowed him with intelligence and freedom, and made him lord of creation. All this the psalmist proclaims when he says: Thou hast subjected all things under his terrks. And yet there is a disunity among individuals and among nations which is in striking contrast to this perfect order in the universe.
One would think that the relationships that bind men together terirs only be governed by force. But the world’s Creator has stamped man’s inmost being with an order revealed to man by his conscience; terriis his conscience insists on his preserving it.
Men “show the work of the law written in their hearts. Their conscience bears witness to them. All created being reflects the infinite wisdom of God.
It reflects it all the more clearly, the higher it stands in the scale of perfection. But the mischief is often caused by erroneous opinions. Many people think that the laws which govern man’s relations with the State are the same as those which regulate the blind, elemental forces of the universe. But it is not so; the laws which govern men are quite different. The Father of the universe has inscribed them in man’s nature, and that is where we must look for them; there and nowhere else.
These laws clearly indicate how a man pacemm behave toward his fellows in society, and how the mutual relationships between the members of a State and its officials are to be conducted.
They show too what principles must govern the relations between States; and finally, what should be the relations between individuals or States on the one hand, and the world-wide community of nations on the other. Men’s common interests make it imperative that at long last a world-wide community of nations be established. Any well-regulated and productive association of men in society demands the acceptance of one fundamental principle: His is a nature, that is, endowed with intelligence and free will.
As such he has rights and duties, which together flow as a enciclic consequence from his nature.
Pacem in Terris
These rights and duties are universal and inviolable, and therefore altogether inalienable. When, furthermore, we consider man’s personal dignity from the standpoint of divine revelation, inevitably our estimate of it is incomparably increased. Men have been ransomed by the blood of Jesus Christ.
Grace has made them sons and friends of God, and heirs to eternal glory. But first We must speak of man’s rights. Man has the right to live. He has the right to bodily integrity and to the means necessary for the proper development of life, particularly food, clothing, shelter, medical care, rest, and, finally, the necessary social services.
In consequence, he has the right to be looked after in the event of illhealth; disability stemming from his work; widowhood; old age; enforced unemployment; or whenever through no fault of his own he is deprived of the means of livelihood.
Moreover, man has a natural right to be respected. He has a right to his good name. He has a right to freedom in investigating the truth, and—within the limits of the moral order and the common good—to freedom of speech and publication, and to freedom to pursue whatever profession he may choose.
He has the right, also, to be accurately informed about public events. He has the natural right to share in the benefits of culture, and hence to receive a good general education, and a technical or professional training consistent with the degree of educational development in his own country. Furthermore, a system must be devised for affording gifted members of society the opportunity of engaging in more advanced studies, with a view to their occupying, as far as possible, positions of responsibility in society in keeping with their natural talent and acquired skill.
Also among man’s rights is that of being able to worship God in accordance with the right dictates of his own conscience, and to profess his religion both in private and in public. According to the clear teaching terriis Lactantius, “this is the very condition of our birth, that we render to the God who made us that just homage which is His due; that we acknowledge Him alone as God, and follow Him.
It is from this ligature of piety, tegris binds us and joins us to God, that religion derives its name. Hence, too, Pope Leo XIII declared that “true freedom, freedom worthy of the sons of God, is that freedom which most truly safeguards the dignity of the human person. It is stronger than any violence or injustice. Such is the freedom which has always been desired by the Church, and which she holds most dear.
It is the sort of freedom which the Apostles resolutely claimed for themselves. The apologists defended it in their writings; thousands of martyrs consecrated it with their blood. Human beings have also the right to choose for themselves the kind of life which appeals to them: The family, founded upon marriage freely contracted, one and indissoluble, must be regarded as the natural, primary cell of human society. The interests of the family, therefore, must be taken very specially into consideration in social and economic affairs, as well as in the spheres of faith and morals.
For all of these have to do with strengthening the family and assisting it in the fulfilment of its mission. Of course, the support and education of children is a right which belongs primarily to the parents. In the economic sphere, it is evident that a man has the inherent right not only to be given the opportunity to work, but also to be allowed the exercise of personal initiative in the work he does. Wnciclica conditions in which a man works form a necessary corollary to these rights.
They must not be such as to weaken his physical or moral fibre, or militate against the proper development of adolescents to treris. Women must be accorded such conditions of work as are consistent with their needs and responsibilities as wives and mothers. A further consequence of man’s personal dignity is his right to engage in economic activities suited to his degree of responsibility.
The amount a worker receives must be sufficient, in proportion to available funds, to allow him and his family a standard of living consistent with human dignity. Pope Pius XII expressed it in pace terms:. Such is nature’s categorical imperative for the preservation of man.
Pacem in Terris – Viquipèdia, l’enciclopèdia lliure
As a further consequence of man’s nature, he has the right to the private ownership of property, including that of productive goods. This, as We have said elsewhere, is “a right which constitutes so efficacious a means of asserting one’s personality and exercising responsibility in every field, and an element of solidity and security for family life, and of greater peace and prosperity in the State. Finally, it is opportune to point out that the right to own private property entails a social obligation as well.
Men are by nature social, and consequently they have the right to meet together and to form associations with their fellows. They have the right to confer on such associations the type of organization enciclicaa they consider best calculated to achieve their objectives.
They have also the right to exercise their own initiative and act on their own responsibility within these associations for the attainment of the desired results As We insisted in Our encyclical Mater et Magistrathe founding of a great many such intermediate groups or societies for the pursuit of aims which it is not within the competence of the individual to achieve efficiently, is a matter of great urgency.
Such groups and societies must be considered absolutely essential for the safeguarding of man’s personal freedom and dignity, while leaving intact a sense of responsibility. Again, teerris human being has the right to freedom of movement and of residence within the confines of his own State.
Pacem in Terris (April, 11 ) | John XXIII
When there are just reasons in favor of it, he must be permitted to emigrate to other countries and take up residence there. Finally, man’s personal dignity involves his right to take an active part in public life, and to make his own contribution to the pscem welfare of his fellow citizens.
As Pope Pius XII said, “man as such, far from being an object or, as it were, an inert element in society, is rather enciflica subject, its basis and its purpose; and so must he be esteemed. As a human person he is entitled to the legal protection of his rights, and such protection must be effective, unbiased, and strictly just.
To him is assigned a certain, well-defined sphere of law, immune from arbitrary attack. The natural rights of which We have so far been speaking are inextricably bound up with as many duties, all applying to one and the same person. These rights and duties derive their origin, their sustenance, and their indestructibility from the natural law, which in conferring the one imposes the other.
Thus, for example, the right to live involves the duty to preserve one’s life; the right to a decent standard of living, the duty to live in a becoming fashion; the right to be free to seek out the truth, the duty to devote oneself to an ever deeper and wider search for it. Once this is admitted, it follows that in human society one man’s natural right gives rise to a corresponding duty in other men; the duty, that is, of recognizing and respecting that right.
Every basic human right draws its terriis force from the natural law, which confers it and attaches to it its respective duty.
Hence, to claim one’s rights and ignore one’s duties, or only half fulfill them, is like building a house with one hand and tearing it down with the other. Since men are social by nature, they must live together and consult each other’s interests. That men should recognize and perform their respective rights and duties is imperative to a well ordered society. But the result will be that each individual will make his whole-hearted contribution to the creation of a civic order in which rights and duties are ever more diligently and more effectively observed.
For example, it is useless to admit that a man has a right to the necessities of life, unless we also do all in our power to supply him with means sufficient for his livelihood. Hence society must not only be well ordered, it must also provide men with abundant resources. This postulates not only the mutual recognition and fulfillment of rights and duties, but also the involvement and collaboration of all men in the many enterprises which our present civilization makes possible, encourages or indeed demands.
Man’s personal dignity requires besides that he enjoy freedom and be able to make up his own mind when he acts. In his association with his fellows, therefore, there is every reason why his recognition of rights, observance of duties, and many-sided collaboration with other men, should be primarily a matter of his own personal decision. Each man should act on his own initiative, conviction, and sense of responsibility, not under the constant pressure of external coercion or enticement.
There is nothing human about a society that is welded together by force.
Far from encouraging, as it should, the attainment of man’s progress and perfection, it is merely an obstacle to his freedom. Hence, before a society can be considered well-ordered, creative, and consonant with human dignity, it must be based on truth. Paul expressed this as follows: Human society, as We here picture it, demands that men be guided by justice, respect the rights of others and do their duty.
It demands, too, that they be animated by such love as will make them feel the needs of others as their own, and induce them to share their goods with others, and to strive in the world to make all men alike heirs to the noblest of intellectual and spiritual values. Nor is this enough; for human society thrives on freedom, namely, on the use of means which are consistent with the dignity of its individual members, who, being endowed with reason, assume responsibility for their own actions. And so, dearest sons and brothers, we must think of human society as being primarily a spiritual reality.