The electroretinogram (ERG) is a diagnostic test that measures the . The multifocal ERG (mfERG) simultaneously measures local retinal. Multifocal electroretinography (mfERG) is an objective, noninvasive examination for the assessment of visual function. It enables the stimulation. Abstract. AIMS To describe the topography of multifocal electroretinograms ( ERGs) and to explore its diagnostic value in patients with Stargardt’s macular.

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In our practice, such altitudinal defects can sometimes be difficult to distinguish from ischemic optic neuropathy. Once eyes dilate to about 7 mm testing can begin. The first human ERG recordings were obtained in by James Dewar, but recordings were not stable enough electrorretinogfama quantitative measurements until the introduction of the contact lens electrode in by Lorrin Riggs.

Multifocal Electroretinograms | Protocol

This recording takes less than 4 minutes. Please recommend JoVE to your librarian.

Multifocal electroretinograms are useful to diagnose and quantify progress of most retinal diseases, ocular trauma, and retinal drug toxicity. Reproduction in whole or in part without permission is prohibited.

Electroretinography – Wikipedia

Privacy policy About EyeWiki Disclaimers. Color transformation of “b-wave” implicit times of left eye of patient with birdshot chorioretinopathy showing slow times. If your mfERG system displays stimulus on video monitor place all subjects same distance from stimulus monitor. Initially decreased oscillatory potentials, later stages eledtrorretinograma reduced a- and b-wave amplitudes.

The subject fixates on the center of a display containing an array of multifoca that increase in size from the center outward. Scotopic rod responses are isolated by dark-adaptation for a minimum of 20 minutes per ISCEV standards followed by a short wavelength stimulus as a single flash or 10 Hz flicker.


Components of mfERG systems vary between manufacturers. On the other hand, most OMD patients had slight but significant prolonged latencies across the whole tested field.

Oscillatory potentials OP are high-frequency, mlutifocal wavelets on the ascending limb of the b-wave with a frequency of about to Hz.

Multifocal ERG can also be used to separate retinal disease from neurological-related eye disorders. These small and often very fast signals can be captured by an electrode placed on the surface of the cornea. In healthy eyes, this peak is generated by the cells in the fovea.

Phacoemulsification Cataract surgery Capsulorhexis. The latencies of the waveforms appear to be most consistent in the normal population. Our main focus is to investigate the normal age-related changes in multifocal ERG responses and to find out and quantify the underlying optical and neural factors contributing to those age-related changes see recent publications.

Normal ERG responses unless presence of advanced retinopathy; cone function initially more affected than rod function.

If a dim flash ERG is performed on a dark-adapted eye, the response is elwctrorretinograma from the rod system.

By contrast, Stargardt’s disease and cone dystrophies show conspicuous reduction in mfERGs in the central macular, where cones dominate. The resulting electrical activity is recorded by an electrode, then amplified and analyzed.

Figure 2 shows a color scale electrortetinograma for a patient with pockets of retinal toxicity between electrorrettinograma and 15 degrees away from the fovea.


The full-field ERG Ganzfeld; ffERG measures the stimulation of the entire retina with a flashlight source under dark-adapted scotopic and light-adapted photopic types of retinal adaptation.

Photopic cone responses can be obtained either before or after dark-adaptation. This severe decrease follows the arterial supply pattern and persists even after the retina returns to its normal appearance. KumarHema L.

Correlatively, a normal multifocal ERG can help exclude Stargardt’s disease. Journal of Diabetes and its Complications.


Fluorescein angiography Fundus photography Corneal topography Optical coherence tomography Electrodiagnosis: In the protocol below, we describe the recording of mfERGs using a bipolar speculum contact lens. We find that the pericentral loss pattern See Figure 2 is most specific to hydroxychloroquine toxicity.

In late stages of the disease, full-field ERG may be nonrecordable even in the presence of a electrorretinogeama field by kinetic perimetry. It electrorretniograma important to remember that the mfERG procedure records a large multi-dimensional data set and to resist the temptation to rely purely on the b-wave approximation. The multifocal ERG mfERG simultaneously measures local retinal responses from up to retinal locations within the central electrorgetinograma degrees mapped topographically.

A variety of techniques have been described in the literature for recording fERGs.