Curso de topografia. Front Cover. Lelis Espartel Bibliographic information. QR code for Curso de topografia. Title, Curso de topografia. Author, Lelis Espartel. 5 days ago ESPARTEL CURSO DE TOPOGRAFIA DOWNLOAD | Rainbow Clicks. Plano de Ensino Materiais de Construcao Civil I_ Exercícios Sobre. 23 out. MINISTÉRIO DA EDUCAÇÃO UNIVERSIDADE FEDERAL DE PELOTAS DEPARTAMENTO DE DESENHO TÉCNICO E GRÁFICA.

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Habitat fragmentation has been one of the most important subjects for conservation biology during the last years. However, few studies have evaluated the effects of forest fragmentation on mixed-species bird flocks. These flocks are associations of two or more species, which cohesion is related to networks of interactions between flock members. Decreased predation and increased foraging efficiency are two main selective advantages thought to explain the evolution of mixed-species flocking behavior.

The yopografia of this work was to analyse mixed-species flock composition in relation to the size of Atlantic Forest fragments during rainy and dry seasons, at Zona da Mata region, Southeastern of Minas Gerais State, Brazil. Three distinct kinds of mixed-species flocks were identified at the study area: The first one was observed in all forest fragments, although understory flocks were observed in only three.

Canopy flocks were rare in all fragments. Some species were presente in two different kinds of flocks. The Black-goggled Tanager Trichothraupis melanops and the Golden-crowned Warbler Basileuterus culicivorus were nuclear species of heterogeneous flocks. The Red-crowned Ant-tanager Habia rubica was the most important species in understory flock formation and cohesion.

In canopy flocks none of the species had similar characteristics. Here we analyzed the effect of season and forest fragment area on the composition of understory and heterogeneous mixed-flock based on two approaches: In relation to species’ frequencies, seasonality affected heterogeneous flocks composition more strongly eapartel fragment area. Only two forest fragments differed slightly in heterogeneous flocks’ composition.

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Both area and seasonality influenced understory flock composition. Excluding the category of canopy species of heterogeneous flocks, which decreased with fragment area in the rainy season, the overall proportion of species in the categories forest-dependence, foraging strata and foraging characteristics did not change in relation to forest fragment area or season, neither for heterogeneous nor for understory flocks.


Atlantic Forest, Brazil, forest fragmentation, seasonal effects, mixed-species flock composition. O eixo I separou os bandos mistos de sub-bosque dos demais bandos, revelando que H. Os bandos de copa compostos por H. Trichothraupis melanops e B.

Para os bandos de sub-bosque, H. Em todos estes bandos H. A capacidade de H. Myiophobus fasciatusLepidocolaptes angustirostris e Phacellodomus rufifrons. Composition of mixed-species bird flocks and abundance of flocking species in a semideciduous forest of southeastern Brazil.

Sentinel behavior, seasonality, and the structure of bird flocks in Brazilian savanna. Effects of habitat fragmentation on birds and mammals in landscapes with different proportions of suitable habitat: Bird communities in natural forest patches in southern Brazil. New records and habitats of the White-browed foliage Gleaner Anabacerthia amaurotis Passeriformes: Furnariidae in Rio Grande do Sul, southern Brazil.

Effects of forest fragmentation on Amazonian understory bird communities. Understory birds and dynamic habitat mosaics in Amazonian rainforests. Chicago, The University of Chicago Press.

Curso de topografia – L. Espartel – Google Books

Breeding birds of isolated woodlots: Nested subsets and the distribution of birds on isolated woodlots. Social systems in a tropical forest avifauna. Species loss in a forest bird community near Lagoa Santa in southeastern Brazil. The anual cycle of plants, mosquitoes, birds, and mammals in two Brazilian forests. A seasonal analysis of mixed flocks of birds in Brazil.

Resource seasonality and the structure of mixed species bird flocks in coastal Atlantic Forest of southeastern Brazil. Journal of Tropical Ecology, Porto Alegre, Editora Globo. Winter participation by Neotropical migrant and resident birds in mixed-species flocks in northeasthern Mexico. Detrend correspondence analysis, an improved ordination technique. Mutualistic and commensal organization of avian mixed-species foraging flocks in a forest of western Madagascar.

Journal of Avian Biology, The composition and social organization of mixed-species flocks in a tropical decidous forest in Western Mexico.

Multi-species territoriality and dynamic of neotropical forest understorey bird flocks. Journal of Animal Ecology, The composition and foraging ecology of mixed-species flock in pine forests of Hispaniola. Avian extinctions in an isolated tropical wet-forest preserve, Ecuador.

Journal of Hyperspectral Remote Sensing – ISSN 2237-2202

Effects of forest fragmentation on breeding bird communities in Maryland, USA. Edge and other effects of isolation on Amazon forest fragments. The science of scarcity and diversity.


New York, John Wiley and Sons. Revista Brasileira de Biologia Effects of forest fragment size and successional stage on mixed-species bird flocks in southeastern Brazil. Effects of forest fragmentation on birds of the Cerrado region, Brazil.

Bird Conservation International, Composition and temporal variation of flocks in the Espartrl Nevada. Edpartel behaviour and predator avoidance in heterospecific groups. The organization and probable evolution of some mixed species flocks of Neotropical birds. Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collection, Permanent canopy and understory flocks in Amazonia: Washington, American Ornithologist’s Union.

Multi-species territoriality in Neotropical foraging flocks. Tropical forest fragmentation and the local extinction of understory birds in the Eastern Usambara Mountains, Tanzania. Tropical avian phenology in relation to abundance and explotation of food resources. Structure and dynamics of interspecific flocks in a Neotropical mid-elevation forest.

Sociobiology and adaptative significance of interespecific foraging flocks in the Neotropics. Espartell of habitat alteration on a tropical avian forest community.

Analyzing tables of statistical tests. Spatial distribution and food utilization among tanagers in southeastern Brazil Passeriformes: Foraging behaviour of the White-collared Foliage-gleaner Anabazenops fuscusa bamboo specialist. Rio de Janeiro, Nova Fronteira. Avian extinction and persistence mechanisms in lowland Panama. Eslartel of the Cerrado region, South America.

Biometry New York, W. Geographic variation in species composition of mixed species flocks in lowland humid forests in Brazil. Use of Amazonian forest fragments by understory insectivorous birds. The advantages of social foraging in Downy Woodpeckers. Estudo regional da Zona da Mata, de Minas Gerais. Revista Brasileira de Geografia, Structure and conservation of forest avifauna in isolated rainforest remnants in tropical Australia. A study of the foraging behaviour of two species of Ant-Tanagers.

The composition of avian currso in remanescent woodlots in southern Brazil. Mimicry in bird flocks of cloud forests in southeastern Brazil.

Revista Brasileira de Biologia, Avian communities of fragmented south-temperate rainforests in Chile. The effects of food, nest predation and weather on the timing of breeding in tropical House Wrens. All the contents of this journal, except where otherwise noted, is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License.

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