The British government decided to endorse the establishment of a Jewish home in Palestine. After discussions within the cabinet and consultations with Jewish. The Balfour Declaration was a statement of support made by the British Government for the establishment of a national home for the Jewish people in Eretz. A decade later, as British foreign secretary, he wrote the document known as the Balfour Declaration, which recognized the Jewish people’s.
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The two were instrumental in obtaining the Balfour Declaration, a British document that many feel was a critical step in the establishment of Israel.
The Hidden History of How the U. Most analysts consider WWI a pointless conflict that resulted from diplomatic entanglements rather than some travesty of justice or aggression. Yet, it was catastrophic to a generation of Europeans, killing ba,four million people. The United States joined this unnecessary war a few years into the hostilities, costing many American lives, even though the U.
President Wilson changed balfuor in and plunged the U. ApproximatelyAmericans were killed or injured.
While Americans today are aware of many of these facts, few know that Zionism appears to have been one of those factors.
When this movement began, in the late deolaration, the population of Palestine was 96 percent Muslim and Christian. The large majority of Jews around the world were not Zionists. Diverse documentary evidence shows that Zionists pushed for the U. They then turned to Britain, which was also initially less than enthusiastic.
Balfour-Deklaration – Brill Reference
Famous English Middle East experts such as Gertrude Bell pointed out that Palestine was Arab and that Jerusalem was sacred to all three major monotheistic faiths.
However, once the British were embroiled in World War I, and particularly duringa disastrous year for the Allies in which there were 60, British casualties in one day alone, [xi] Zionists were able to play a winning card.
While they previously had appealed to religious or idealistic arguments, now Zionist leaders could add a particularly powerful motivator: Deklaraton letter, while officially signed by British Foreign Minister Lord Balfour, had been in process for two years and had gone through a number of edits by British and American Zionists and British officials. Between London, New York, and Washington there was constant communication, either by telegraph, or by personal visit, and as a result there was perfect unity among the Zionists of both hemispheres.
Brandeis, Judge of the Supreme Court. The final version of the Declaration was actually written by Leopold Amery, a British official who, it came out later, was a secret and fervent Zionist. It appears that the idea for such a declaration had been originally promoted by Parushim deklaratoon Horace Kallen. In Novemberlong before the United States was involved in the war, the fertile brain of Horace Kallen… had come up with the idea of an Allied deklzration supporting in whatever veiled way was deemed necessary, Jewish national rights in Palestine.
Grose writes that Kallen suggested the idea to a well-connected British friend who would pass the idea along. In fact, many credit this as a key factor in the creation of Israel.
Balfour Declaration: Text of the Declaration
After an understanding had been arrived at between Sir Mark Sykes and [Zionists] Weizmann and Sokolow, it was resolved to send a secret message to Justice Brandeis that the British Cabinet would help the Jews to gain Palestine in return for active Jewish sympathy and for support in the USA for the Allied cause, so as to bring about a radical pro-Ally tendency in the United States.
Landman wrote that once the British had agreed to help the Zionists, this information was communicated to the press, which he reported rapidly began to favor the U. British Colonial Secretary Lord Cavendish also wrote about this agreement and its result in a memorandum to the British Cabinet, stating: They kept their word.
Brandeis University professor and author Frank E. Finally, David Ben-Gurion, the first prime minister of Israel, wrote in S and elsewhere, including in Palestine itself, were not Zionists, and some strenuously opposed Zionism. See the book for more information on this. The influence of Brandeis and other Zionists in the U. American Zionists may also have played a role in preventing an early peace with the Ottoman Empire.
In May American Secretary of State Robert Lansing received a report that the Ottomans were extremely weary of the war and that it might be possible to induce them to break with Germany and make a separate peace with Britain. The State Department considered a separate Ottoman peace a long shot, but decided to send an emissary to pursue the possibility.
Morgenthau, to abandon the effort. US State Department officials considered that Zionists had worked to scuttle this potentially peace-making mission and were unhappy about it. Matthey of Iowa was sentenced to a year in jail for applauding an anticonscription speech.
Like Hell it is.
Metropolitan, Cohan, who received the Congressional Medal of Honor for it inwhen America was about to join another world war. Few people are aware that the Lusitania was being used by the British as a high-speed munitions carrier. On her final voyage she was carrying even more contraband than usual, including eighteen cases of fuses for various caliber artillery shells and a large consignment of gun-cotton, an explosive used in the manufacture of propellant charges for big-gun shells.
Germany had warned Americans not to ride on the Lusitania. The Library of Congress reports: For a discussion of events leading up to the U. Nine of Them Avoidable. Lexington, This was a sadly deft prognosis.
Middle East Institute, A number of other British officials also opposed Zionism. They insisted that they had as much right as any Christian to live and prosper in Britain, and they did not want Weizmann, however Anglophile his tastes, telling them to settle in the Judean desert or to till the orange groves of Jaffa.
The battle went on for four and a half months. University of Michigan Press, Yale, a descendant of the founder of Yale University, was an authority on the Middle East who had worked for the State Department in a number of roles in the Middle East, including as a member of the King Crane Commission, and worked for many years as a professor of history.
This the English Zionists successfully did by the end of It was an amazing achievement which required great skill, unfaltering energy, and determination. The methods by which the conquest of the British government was made were diverse and of necessity in some cases devious. For a detailed discussion of the Lusitania incident dekkaration other aspects of the U. Longman, Greens, and Co, The Reality Longmans, Green and Co, By Anne Cipriano Venzon.
Brandeis and Felix Frankfurter, he helped formulate the text of the Balfour Declaration of He has published widely on modern British history and on modern Jewish history, and was President of the Jewish Historical Society of England, Amery, who had kept his Jewish roots secret, worked for Zionism in a number of ways. As a pro-Israel writer Daphne Anson reports:. Inshortly after testifying before the Peel Commission on the future of Palestine, Amery helped to organise a dinner in tribute to the wartime Jewish Legion at which his friend Jabotinsky was guest of honour.
And he became an arch-critic of Chamberlain and Appeasement. Sanders writes that a week later Lucien Wolf, a prominent British journalist dellaration Jewish leader, also sent a letter to the Foreign Office promoting the idea of working deklaratuon propagandize American Jews so that they would work to bring the U. In his communication Wolf claimed: Wolf emphasized that he himself was not a Zionist, but recommended that working through the American Zionist movement would be the best way to achieve this purpose: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, World JewryMarch 1, Woodrow Wilson, for good and sufficient dekaration, always attached the greatest possible importance to the advice of a very prominent Zionist Mr.
Justice Brandeis, of the U. Supreme Court ; and was in close touch with Mr. UP of Florida, Lloyd George had been retained as an attorney by Zionists in While not yet a government leader, he was already a Member of Parliament. Institute for Palestine Studies, Hoover Institution, Stanford University,xv. Moshe Menuhin, scion of a distinguished Jewish family that moved to Palestine during the early days of Zionism and father of the renowned musiciansalso writes about this aspect.
It was in vain that I systematically and repeatedly denied any connection with, or interest in, TNT. No discouragement could put them off. Wayne State UP, Historians speculate that Brandeis suggested Frankfurter. Frankfurter then chose the rest of the entourage, almost all of whom were ardent Zionists.
The British dispatched Zionist Chaim Weizmann who was alerted to the mission by Brandeis and others to meet dellaration the Morgenthau mission in Deklatation. Frankfurter and Weizmann persuaded Morgenthau not to move forward with bxlfour initiative. On 8 OctoberBrandeis cabled to Weizmann: It seems that the U.
Acting through Balfour, the Zionists arranged for Morgenthau and Frankfurter to meet Dr Weizmann at Gibraltar, where he deterred Morgenthau from his task. Army Seals Entrance to Ramallah Village.
Who Wrote the Balfour Declaration and Why: British suffered 60, casualties in the first day of the battle. Amery was a secret and fervent Zionist. Frankfurter often worked secretly with Brandeis, who had procured a professorship for Frankfurter at Harvard see book for details. Some of those involved in drafting the text were Brandeis, Frankfurter, and Wise.