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A single chip microcontroller means that all the components that make a computer are on one chip, i. You will need to refer to these documents to complete your coursework. The library also stocks a number of books on AVR programming. Check on the library catalogue at http: The device uses the ‘Harvard Architecture’ which allows the device to access multiple memories datashet separate internal address buses.
The device has three types of memory arranged as follows: As all AVR instructions are 16 or 32 bits wide the flash is organised as 4k x 16 bits. R31 have some added atmmega8535 to their general purpose usage. These registers can be used as address pointers for indirect addressing. The three indirect address registers X, Y and Z are defined as: The global interrupt enable bit must be set one for the interrupts to be enabled.
The individual interrupt enable control is then performed in separate control registers. If the global interrupt enable bit is cleared zeronone of the datashset are enabled independent of the individual interrupt enable settings. The I-bit is cleared by hardware after an interrupt has occurred, and is set by the RETI instruction to enable subsequent interrupts.
A bit from a register in the register file can be copied into T by the BST instruction, and a bit in T can be copied into a bit in a register in the register file by the BLD instruction. The half carry flag H indicates a half carry in some arithmetic operations. Two’s Complement Overflow Flag The two’s complement overflow flag V supports two’s complement arithmetic. Negative Flag The negative flag N indicates a negative result after the different arithmetic and logic operations.
ATmega – 8-bit AVR Microcontrollers – Microcontrollers and Processors
Zero Flag The zero flag Z indicates a zero result after the different arithmetic and logic operations Bit 0 – C: Carry Flag The carry flag C indicates a carry in an arithmetic or logic operation. Onboard LEDs Xatasheet, i. Producing Assembler Programs A program will consist of two types of information, the Op.
Code Op eration Code – the instruction, e. Code Operand Programs are written dataxheet a text file myprog. The assembler works in terms of fields separated by tabs in the. In the above example the.
A defined symbol can be used in the rest of the program datzsheet refer to the register it is assigned to. A register can have several symbolic names attached to it.
This label can then be used in later expressions. A label assigned to a value by the EQU datassheet is a constant and can not be changed or redefined. A complete list of Assembler Directives can be found here.
Atmegga8535 Example 1 and Example 2 above such that the incremental count in example 1 occurring in Register 16 r16 is dstasheet to Port C. Clock Cycles The time taken for each instruction can be calculated by the number of clock cycles the instruction takes multiplied by the reciprocal of the clock frequency i. This enables the duration of a program execution to be calculated.
Branching Consider the following code: These modes can vary between different processors.
ATMEGA Datasheet(PDF) – ATMEL Corporation
The atmfga8535 common modes are listed below. Subroutines should be used to give structure to a program Problem 3. Rewrite Problem 2 to such that the delay is incorporated into a subroutine solution. Interrupts Way of combing hardware and software operations Allows hardware to wtmega8535 software Means of calling special subroutines in software using hardware actions Hardware makes only temporary effects in software They must be electrical signals coroneted directly to the microprocessor Reset and Interrupt Vectors.
On the receipt of an interrupt, the processor will jump to a location in the vector table, in which is stored the address of the interrupt service routine.
This is datashewt by preserving the contents of the program counter which contains the address of the next line program line in the top of memory called the stack.
Atmeya8535 program counter is then loaded with the address of the routine and program execution continues from that address. Program execution then continues from the next program line to the one that the routine was called from. If a subroutine calls up another subroutine the process is repeated, with the stack now containing two return address.
The Stack Pointer needs to be initialised at the start of a program to point to a location in memory where the programmer wishes to locate the stack This is normally at the top of memory. The EQU directive assigns atmegw8535 value to a label.