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After examining the structure and organisation of a number of technical curricula from other Japanese Martial Arts, I realised that the Aikido Curriculum is arranged, from aijido to advanced, in a completely different and unique way to these other arts.
There are no secret techniques in Aikido, nor does it draw any distinction between Shoden, Chuden, Hiden and Okuden levels of teaching that the Koryu Classical arts do. Instead, Aikido techniques are graded from basic to advanced by levels of technical complexity, both in taijutsu hand-techniques and bukiwaza weapons.
While probably not as extensive as the curriculum of Daito Ryu Aiki Jujutsu or other Koryu arts, Iwama Aikido does retain a large number of techniques as compared to other styles of Aikido.
Techniques are divided into three main groups, Aiki Tai-jutsu body techniques, or empty-handAiki Ken jutsu sword techniques and Aiki Jo jutsu stick techniques. These three major groupings of techniques are inter-related through the innovative concept of Riai that O-Sensei developed during the Iwama period.
There are also a number of supplementary groups of techniques, such as Tanto-dori knife-takingand Tenugui waza techniques with a hand towel both of which are included within tai-jutsu, Juken-dori bayonetted rifle disarmingwhich are absorbed into Aiki Jo Jutsu, and Shuriken Jutsu blade throwingwhich was taught separately to uchi-deshi of Saito Sensei and probably did not play a role in O-Sensei’s concept of Riai.
Finally there is a collection of movements which fall outside the categorisation of the above groups, but which are essential to all, and they are everyday movements such as rolling etc, which for lack of a better term I call Kyotsu Waza, common techniques shared by all. Aiki Tai-jutsu Categorisation method 1.
Techniques are named, when applicable, according to the following classification: Many combinations of these classifications are not possible, due to the nature of the movement of some techniques, however this categorisaion method is a simple and practical way of defining more than 1, techniques.
Posture – 3 possible combinations of postures that attacker and defender can take Suwari Waza – both seated Hanmi Handachi – nage seated, uke standing Tachi Waza – both standing Suwari Waza is regarded as basic training, because it teaches basic principles of body movement, while helping to physically develop the hips and rest of body.
Even though it is more difficult to perform than in standing position, it learned first in order to impart the correct principles of movement early in the course of learning. Directional Aspect – Attack – 2 possible directions from which an attack may come. Mae Waza – frontal attacks including from aikivo Ushiro Waza – rear attacks Although Ushiro Waza techniques are essentially a repeat of all the frontal attacks, it is regarded as more advanced because of the added complexity of dealing with the opponent gripping from the rear.
Attacks from the side can be adapted to become frontla attacks by a simple turn of the body. They are all grouped together because they are within the field of view, whereas attacks to the rear are outside the field of view, and so dinmica treated separately to frontal and side attacks.
The attacks themselves are not absolute, and the list is not exhaustive, however, these 24 attacks define the full range of possible attacking movements that could be encountered by the Aikido-ka, according to the principles of “Takemusu Aiki”.
Technique dinamkca executed – 6 core techniques, with a further 4 regarded as variations of these techniques, and a further 3 regarded as specialised techniques. Ikkyo kara Rokkyo – 1st teaching to 6th teaching Shiho Nage – four directional throw Kote-gaeshi – wrist turning Irimi nage – entering throw Kokyu Nage – abdominal breath power throw Koshi Nage – hip throw Ikkyo kara Rokkyo refers to all the elbow taking techniques, Ikkyo, Nikyo, Sankyo, Yonkyo, Gokyo and Rokkyo, which qikido themselves ordered in a progression of technical complexity.
Rokkyo was previously labelled as a separate technique: Omote and Ura are treated as being equally as important, rather like two sides of the coin. Method of Finishing the techniques – 4 methods of dealing with the attacker. Nuke – escaping Atemi – striking Nage – throwing Katame, or Osae – pinning, or controling These finishes are listed in order of progressive difficulty, however it is Nage and Katame that is usually practiced, because if one in proficient in these, Nuke and Atemi are readily apparent.
To make matters clearer, a technique name can be generated by following the path of movement through the above categories, from the beginning of the movement to the end, as seen in the chart dknamica. For example, to classify a technique where you are attacked from the front by a standing attacker while you are seated, with a grip to your wrist, whereby you perform the 4 directional throw to their rear, finishing with a pin, the technique would be called “Mae hanmi handachi katate-dori shiho-nage, katame”.
If the technique was practiced as a solid exercise see belowthen you would add “kihon” at the end. This categorisation method defines the above techniques in a aikico training method according to the type of martial principles being taught. Certain of the above techniques can be regarded as teaching basic principles, while others only appear in special circumstances, and all of the above techniques can be defined in terms of rinamica of these training methods.
Kihon Waza – basic techniques Henka Waza – variation of basic techniques Oyo Waza – applied techniques Sutemi Waza – sacrifice techniques Kaeshi Waza – reversal, or counter techniques Iko Waza – techniques to deal with counter techniques Jiyu Waza – free techniques These methods are listed oa order of progressive difficulty and complexity, which is consistent with an increasing depth of martial principle. This categorisation method defines the level of intensity in physical movement and amount of intention in the mind of both the attacker and the defender when performing the movements.
Ko Tai – “hard body” or solid, Ju Tai – “soft body” or flexible, Ryu Tai – “flowing body” Ki Tai – “energy body” This list shows the training method in order of progressive difficulty, which is consistent with an increasing development in performance.
Aikido, el arte de la esfera dinámica | The grokking eagle
Ko Tai and Ju tai have come to be known as “Kihon” and “Ki-no-nagare” respectively, while Ryu Tai and Ki Tai have become grouped together to form what is known as “Ki-musubi”.
A distinction should be made between Ryu Tai and Ki Tai however, as Ki Tai is performed with the same physical movement as Ryu Tai, but with the most intense level of intention that borders on fully-intended attack. Aiki Jo Jutsu Jo Suburi – 20 techniques, basic strikes and blocks Roku no jo – 3 techniques, a 6 step combination of suburi that condenses to 4 step, with variations Tenkan Waza – 6 techniques, and deg.
Tenugui Waza These techniques utilise the traditional Japanese cotton hand-towel tenuguiand involve trapping the attackers arm and throwing. They are based upon taijutsu movements and are performed rarely, usually in a Demonstration setting. It is possible they derived from manriki-gusari double weighted chain weapon arts of the 19th Century and earlier.
Juken Dori These are pre-War bayonetted rifle techniques that the founder trained in and taught while in the army, and have become absorbed into the Jo-Jutsu curriculum, however they still appear occasionally in Demonstration settings. Saito Sensei taught Shuriken to uchi-deshi after they had signed a “keppan” or oath of sincerity. Kyotsu Waza These are not really techniques as such, but movements and understandings that students need to learn to enable safe participation in traditional Japanese dojo life.
Kyotsu means “shared by all” and simply refers to the common sense things that one should know when ina dojo. Kuden Kuden is the oral teachings and written material produced by O-Sensei over his almost 70 year martial career. It consists of calligraphy, poems, oral teachings, poems and writings, all of which contain further information and detail about the art the the founder taught. It is not all collected and kept in a single place, rather, it is spread out over private collections, reproductions in publications, on display in dojo around the world, and held in the memories of the remaining students of O-Sensei and their deshi.
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